If a system has two or more input variables and two or more output variables, simultaneous equations for the output variables can be written. In general, when the number of inputs and outputs is large, the simultaneous equations are written in matrix form.
The digital computer is based on digital electronic circuits. Although some of the circuits are quite sophisticated, such as the microprocessors integrated on a single chip, the concepts behind most of the circuits involved in digital computers are quite simple compared to the circuits used
Electric circuit theory includes the study of all aspects of electric circuits, including analysis, design, and application. In electric circuit theory the fundamental quantities are the potential differences (voltages) in volts between various points, the electric currents in amperes flowing in the several paths, and
One means of doing analog-to-digital conversion is to use a clocked counter that feeds a digital-to-analog converter, whose output is compared with the analog signal to stop the count when the digital-to-analog output exceeds the analog signal. The counter output is then the analog-to-digital output.
The MOSFET is a versatile device, acting as a voltage-controlled current source in the saturation region and approximately as a voltage-controlled resistor in the resistive region. It can also be electronically controlled between cutoff and the resistive region to make it act as a switch,
Electronic circuits are also classified as analog or digital. Analog circuits work with signals that span a full range of values of voltages and currents, while digital circuits work with signals that are at prescribed levels to represent numerical digits. Analog signals generally are used
The path taken by an electric current in flowing through a conductor through one complete run of a set of wires from a power source, such as a panelboard, to various electrical devices and back to the same power source. The wires used for various
An interconnection of electronic devices, an electronic device being an entity having terminals which is described at its terminals by electromagnetic laws. Most commonly these are voltage-current laws, but others, such as photovoltaic relationships, may occur.
A block diagram consists of two basic functional units that represent system operations. The individual block symbols portray the dynamic relations between the input and output signals. The second type of unit, called a summing point, is represented by a circle with arrows feeding into
Circuit diagrams show connectors between components and the locations of connectors and lead-ins; such diagrams also illustrate methods of laying out, mounting, and fastening conductors, cables, and piping. Others show external connections to other articles; such diagrams are used for the installation and operation of