A flat board whose front contains slots for integrated circuit chips and connections for a variety of electronic components, and whose back is printed with electrically conductive pathways between the components. Also known as circuit board.
Devices with an individual physical identity, such as amplifiers, transistors, loudspeakers, and generators, are often represented by equivalent circuits for purposes of analysis. These equivalent circuits are made up of the basic passive and active elements listed above.
An interconnection of electronic devices, an electronic device being an entity having terminals which is described at its terminals by electromagnetic laws. Most commonly these are voltage-current laws, but others, such as photovoltaic relationships, may occur.
The field of electronic circuits is very broad and there are a very large number of other circuits besides those discussed above. For example, the differential is a key element in operational amplifier design and in biomedical data acquisition devices which must also be interfaced with specialized electronic sensors. Light-emitting and -detecting diodes allow for signals to be transmitted and received at optical frequencies. Liquid crystals are controlled by electronic circuits and are useful in digital watches, flat-panel color television displays, and electronic shutters.