For wiring a single-phase motor, the most important objective is to distinguish the starting circuit from the main winding. These two circuits are isolated from one another electrically if the lead wires are separarted and not in contact with each other. Initially, the ohmeter can be used to determine which wire belongs to which circuit as well as checking continuity between leads.
Think of the atoms of magnetic material as an unruly herd of cattle. Running electric current through the material will polarize these atoms, creating the magnetic field. But as I mentioned, this is an unruly herd, so it takes time for the current to bring all those atoms into formation.
It is important to keep this struggle between performance and cost in mind when you talk to customers about energy-efficient motor-driven equipment. Yes, efficiency is probably more important to homeowners now than ever, but that efficient operation comes at a price. And motor manufacturers will keep working to strike that balance between motor performance, efficiency, and cost.
Here is where metallurgy comes into play. A motor rich in magnetically soft material will be more efficient, producing more work with less heat. And since the magnetic capacity of a motor also is influenced by the amount of active material (more core, more laminations), the tendency might be to try to add as much magnetically soft material to your design as possible.