This means it must be connected using wires thick enough to carry 4 amps comfortably. Often the power consumption of a component will be stated in watts, which are found by multiplying amps and volts. The lamp in the example consumes 48 watts.
Most are wired through the ignition switch, so that they work only when the ignition is switched on. This prevents you accidentally leaving something switched on which might cause the battery to go flat.
There are many fuses, each protecting a small group of components, so that one blown fuse does not shut down the whole system. Many of the fuses are grouped together in a fuse box, but there may also be line fuses in the wiring.
All the electrical units of measurement are interrelated: a pressure of 1 volt causes a current of 1 amp to flow through a resistance of 1 ohm. Volts divided by ohms equal amps. For example, a light bulb with a resistance of 3 ohms, in a 12 volt system, consumes 4 amps.