Think of the atoms of magnetic material as an unruly herd of cattle. Running electric current through the material will polarize these atoms, creating the magnetic field. But as I mentioned, this is an unruly herd, so it takes time for the current to bring all those atoms into formation.
Without getting into a lengthy physics lecture, this process of reversing polarity produces heat (or wasted energy). This is known as hysteresis loss. And that helps explain why increasing the voltage into the motor will not necessarily increase the output. Instead, it can fight the resistance of magnetic materials to reverse polarity--and simply heat iron.
A simple, experimental motor such as this is not capable of making much power. We can increase the turning force (or torque) that the motor can create in three ways: either we can have a more powerful permanent magnet, or we can increase the electric current flowing through the wire, or we can make the coil so it has many "turns" (loops) of very thin wire instead of one "turn" of thick wire. In practice, a motor also has the permanent magnet curved in a circular shape so it almost touches the coil of wire that rotates inside it. The closer together the magnet and the coil, the greater the force the motor can produce.
The PWM Drive (pulse-width modulated drive) to motor power conductors are typically the most intense noise source in a system. Proper implementation of shielding, grounding, splicing, and treatment of excess cable is essential to reducing noise in your system.