The operation that results is a linear combination of incoming signals to generate the output signal. The sign appearing alongside each input to the summing point indicates the sign of that signal as it appears in the output.
Fortunately, most of these transistors occur in pairs, such as the npn and the pnp bipolar junction transistors, or the n-channel and the p-channel MOSFETs, allowing designers to work symmetrically with positive and negative signals and sources. This statement may be clarified by noting that transistors can be characterized by graphs of output current i versus output voltage v that are parametrized by an input current (in the case of the bipolar junction transistor) or input voltage (in the MOSFET and JFET cases). Typically, the curves for an npn bipolar junction transistor or an n-channel field-effect transistor are used in the first quadrant of the output i-v plane, while for a pnp bipolar junction transistor or a p-channel field-effect transistor the same curves show up in the third quadrant. Mathematically, if i = f(v) for an npn bipolar junction transistor or n-channel field-effect device, then i = -f(-v) for a pnp bipolar junction transistor or p-channel field-effect device when the controlling parameters are also changed in sign.
The field of electronic circuits is very broad and there are a very large number of other circuits besides those discussed above. For example, the differential is a key element in operational amplifier design and in biomedical data acquisition devices which must also be interfaced with specialized electronic sensors. Light-emitting and -detecting diodes allow for signals to be transmitted and received at optical frequencies. Liquid crystals are controlled by electronic circuits and are useful in digital watches, flat-panel color television displays, and electronic shutters.
Because most signals in the real world are analog but digital computers work on discretizations, it is necessary to convert between digital and analog signals. As mentioned above, this is done through digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. Most approaches to digital-to-analog conversion use summers, where the voltages representing the digital bits are applied to input resistors, either directly or indirectly through switches gated on by the digital bits which change the input resistance fed by a dc source.
Gallery Of : Lyric Humidifier Wiring Diagram
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