The electrical system of a car is a closed circuit with an independent power source the battery. It operates on a small fraction of the power of a household circuit.
Depending on the fuse design, it is sometimes possible to tell whether it has blown by holding it up against a light; a break in the wire inside may be visible. Another clue is blackening of the glass cover. If there is no visible sign, check by fitting another fuse of the same rating; if that cures the trouble, then the fuse was to blame.
The fuses are usually grouped in a box or on a panel with a cover. Ideally, the box should be fixed in an accessible place — such as the bulkhead under the bonnet.
There are many fuses, each protecting a small group of components, so that one blown fuse does not shut down the whole system. Many of the fuses are grouped together in a fuse box, but there may also be line fuses in the wiring.