Since liquids exert force equally in all directions we can multiply the force it gives by increasing the surface area in which we want the liquid to push against. Typically we apply this principle in a hydraulic cylinder. The greater the surface area at the end of the cylinder, the more force gets exerted on the moving piston.
In 2015 I built a Front end Loader and a backhoe for a 1974 International Harvester Cub Cadet 149. I built the reservoir into one of the loader towers, and ran an 8 GPM gear pump off of the engine’s front PTO Shaft. This pump was connected to a 2 spool directional control valve with a power beyond port. This power beyond port supplied oil to a 6 spool control valve that controlled the backhoe. My hydraulic system is set to have a maximum pressure of 1,000 psi.
The ability to detect, observe, and measure electricity is crucial when trying to understand how a tractor works and learning what you can do to fix it. The digital multi-meter is like a doctor’s stethoscope. It allows us to see the invisible force of electricity and measure how it interacts with the components in our engines and tractors. A digital multi-meter measures current (amps), voltage (volts), and resistance (ohms).
Measuring resistance can indicate the health of a component. For example we can determine if an ignition coil is healthy or not by measuring the resistance of its windings. To measure resistance, set your meter to Ω ohms resistance. If you need to select a range, select the smallest range normally 200 ohms. Place the red probe onto one of the small terminals of the ignition coil, and the black one on the remaining small terminal. Your resistance will then display. A normal ignition coil should read about 3.5 to 4 ohms. If your meter reads a much higher resistance it means your ignition coil may have a short and is faulty.