The sudden surge of high current in a short circuit makes the fuse wire melt, or blow, breaking the circuit. When this happens, see if there is a short circuit or a disconnection, then install a new fuse of the correct amperage rating (See Checking and replacing fuses).
To guard against this, ancillary circuits have fuses. The most common type of fuse is a short length of thin wire enclosed in a heatproof casing often glass. The size of the fuse wire is the thinnest that can carry the normal current of the circuit without overheating, and it is rated in amps.
The current would encounter the resistance twice, and the double resistance would halve the current, so that the bulbs would glow only feebly. Connecting the bulbs in parallel means that electricity goes through each bulb only once.
A circuit usually includes more than one component, such as bulbs in the lighting circuits. It matters whether they are connected in series one after the other or in parallel side by side.